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published by the American Chemical Society
written by Patti Galvan and Jim Kessler
This multimedia lesson for Grades 7-8 features six animations, one video, and a hands-on lab to explore the process of ionic bonding. Learners can visualize what happens when positive and negative ions attract each other and form a bond, build 2D and 3D models, and perform a hands-on activity to observe sodium chloride crystals and relate their shape to the molecular model.

Editor's Note: Ionic bonding occurs when electrons are transferred between atoms through electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Covalent bonding occurs when electrons are shared between atoms. The processes are quite different. This module very effectively explores the atomic processes that underlie ionic bonding.

Please note that this resource requires Flash, or Shockwave.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Modern Physics
- Atomic Physics
= Atomic Models
= Electron Properties
Other Sciences
- Chemistry
- Middle School
- High School
- Informal Education
- Instructional Material
= Curriculum
= Instructor Guide/Manual
= Interactive Simulation
= Lesson/Lesson Plan
= Problem/Problem Set
= Student Guide
- Audio/Visual
= Movie/Animation
Appropriate Courses Categories Ratings
- Physical Science
- Physics First
- Conceptual Physics
- Lesson Plan
- Activity
- Laboratory
- Assessment
- New teachers
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application/flash
application/pdf
application/shockwave
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© 2011 American Chemical Society
Keywords:
anion, atomic structure, cation, chemical bonding, chemistry animations, chemistry videos, electrostatics, energy levels, energy levels, ion, ionic bonding
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created August 17, 2011 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
October 10, 2013 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
May 17, 2011

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

4. The Physical Setting

4D. The Structure of Matter
  • 6-8: 4D/M1a. All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope.
  • 6-8: 4D/M11. Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances with different characteristic properties.
  • 9-12: 4D/H1. Atoms are made of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The nucleus is a tiny fraction of the volume of an atom but makes up almost all of its mass. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons which have roughly the same mass but differ in that protons are positively charged while neutrons have no electric charge.
  • 9-12: 4D/H2. The number of protons in the nucleus determines what an atom's electron configuration can be and so defines the element. An atom's electron configuration, particularly the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. Atoms form bonds to other atoms by transferring or sharing electrons.
  • 9-12: 4D/H9b. Some atoms and molecules are highly effective in encouraging the interaction of others.

11. Common Themes

11B. Models
  • 6-8: 11B/M1. Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly. They are also used for processes that are too vast, too complex, or too dangerous to study.
11D. Scale
  • 6-8: 11D/M3. Natural phenomena often involve sizes, durations, and speeds that are extremely small or extremely large. These phenomena may be difficult to appreciate because they involve magnitudes far outside human experience.

Next Generation Science Standards

Matter and Its Interactions (MS-PS1)

Students who demonstrate understanding can: (6-8)
  • Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures. (MS-PS1-1)

Disciplinary Core Ideas (K-12)

Structure and Properties of Matter (PS1.A)
  • Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms. (6-8)
  • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. (9-12)
Types of Interactions (PS2.B)
  • Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting objects. (6-8)
  • Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects. (9-12)

Crosscutting Concepts (K-12)

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity (3-12)
  • The significance of a phenomenon is dependent on the scale, proportion, and quantity at which it occurs. (9-12)
Structure and Function (K-12)
  • Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function. (6-8)
Stability and Change (2-12)
  • Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and processes at different scales, including the atomic scale. (6-8)
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems (1-12)
  • Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. (6-8)

NGSS Science and Engineering Practices (K-12)

Developing and Using Models (K-12)
  • Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems. (6-8)
    • Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms. (6-8)
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information (K-12)
  • Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods. (6-8)
    • Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information in written text with that contained in media and visual displays to clarify claims and findings. (6-8)

NGSS Nature of Science Standards (K-12)

Developing and Using Models (K-12)
  • Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems. (6-8)
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information (K-12)
  • Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods. (6-8)

This resource is part of a Physics Front Topical Unit.


Topic: Particles and Interactions and the Standard Model
Unit Title: Molecular Structures and Bonding

This multimedia lesson features 6 animations, one video, and a hands-on lab to explore what happens when positive and negative ions attract each other and form a bond. It allows students to visualize ionic bonding and the underlying atomic processes that occur. Developed for middle school, but could be well-adapted for preparatory chemistry or physics.

Link to Unit:
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Record Link
AIP Format
P. Galvan and J. Kessler, (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2011), WWW Document, (http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson5).
AJP/PRST-PER
P. Galvan and J. Kessler, Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding, (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2011), <http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson5>.
APA Format
Galvan, P., & Kessler, J. (2011, May 17). Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding. Retrieved September 21, 2014, from American Chemical Society: http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson5
Chicago Format
Galvan, Patti, and Jim Kessler. Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, May 17, 2011. http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson5 (accessed 21 September 2014).
MLA Format
Galvan, Patti, and Jim Kessler. Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 2011. 17 May 2011. 21 Sep. 2014 <http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson5>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Patti Galvan and Jim Kessler", Title = {Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding}, Publisher = {American Chemical Society}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {21 September 2014}, Month = {May 17, 2011}, Year = {2011} }
Refer Export Format

%A Patti Galvan
%A Jim Kessler
%T Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding
%D May 17, 2011
%I American Chemical Society
%C Washington DC
%U http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson5
%O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Galvan, Patti
%A Kessler, Jim
%D May 17, 2011
%T Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding
%I American Chemical Society
%V 2014
%N 21 September 2014
%8 May 17, 2011
%9 text/html
%U http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson5


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Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding:

Accompanies Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding

This companion resource by the same authors is a multimedia module on the topic of covalent bonding.

relation by Caroline Hall

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