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published by the American Chemical Society
written by Patti Galvan and Jim Kessler
This multimedia lesson for Grades 7-8 features eight animations and a hands-on lab to explore the role of valence electrons in covalent bonding. The multimedia approach provides an opportunity to visualize the attractions between atoms that result in covalent bonds. The lab investigation uses a 9-volt battery, alligator clips, and pencils to show how electrical energy can break the covalent bonds in water molecules.

Editor's Note: Covalent bonding occurs when electrons are shared between atoms; ionic bonding occurs when electrons are transferred between atoms. The processes are quite different. This module very effectively explores both formation and breaking of covalent bonds. Allow two class periods.

Please note that this resource requires Flash, or Shockwave.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
Modern Physics
- Atomic Physics
= Atomic Models
= Electron Properties
Other Sciences
- Chemistry
- Middle School
- Informal Education
- Instructional Material
= Curriculum
= Instructor Guide/Manual
= Interactive Simulation
= Lesson/Lesson Plan
= Problem/Problem Set
= Student Guide
- Audio/Visual
= Movie/Animation
Appropriate Courses Categories Ratings
- Physical Science
- Physics First
- Conceptual Physics
- Lesson Plan
- Activity
- Laboratory
- Assessment
- New teachers
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Formats:
text/html
application/flash
application/pdf
application/shockwave
Access Rights:
Free access
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© 2011 American Chemical Society
Keywords:
atomic structure, chemical bonding, chemistry animations, chemistry videos, covalent, electrolysis, electrolysis lab, electron sharing, energy levels, valence, valence electrons
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created August 17, 2011 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
October 10, 2013 by Caroline Hall
Last Update
when Cataloged:
May 17, 2011

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

4. The Physical Setting

4D. The Structure of Matter
  • 6-8: 4D/M1a. All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope.
  • 6-8: 4D/M6c. Carbon and hydrogen are common elements of living matter.
  • 6-8: 4D/M11. Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances with different characteristic properties.
  • 9-12: 4D/H2. The number of protons in the nucleus determines what an atom's electron configuration can be and so defines the element. An atom's electron configuration, particularly the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. Atoms form bonds to other atoms by transferring or sharing electrons.
4G. Forces of Nature
  • 9-12: 4G/H2a. Electric forces acting within and between atoms are vastly stronger than the gravitational forces acting between the atoms. At larger scales, gravitational forces accumulate to produce a large and noticeable effect, whereas electric forces tend to cancel each other out.
  • 9-12: 4G/H2b. At the atomic level, electric forces between electrons and protons in atoms hold molecules together and thus are involved in all chemical reactions.

11. Common Themes

11B. Models
  • 6-8: 11B/M1. Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly. They are also used for processes that are too vast, too complex, or too dangerous to study.

Next Generation Science Standards

Matter and Its Interactions (MS-PS1)

Students who demonstrate understanding can: (6-8)
  • Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred. (MS-PS1-2)

Disciplinary Core Ideas (K-12)

Structure and Properties of Matter (PS1.A)
  • Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms. (6-8)
  • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. (9-12)
  • The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms. (9-12)
  • A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart. (9-12)
Chemical Reactions (PS1.B)
  • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. (6-8)

Crosscutting Concepts (K-12)

Structure and Function (K-12)
  • Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function. (6-8)
Stability and Change (2-12)
  • Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and processes at different scales, including the atomic scale. (6-8)
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems (1-12)
  • Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. (6-8)

Science and Engineering Practices (K-12)

Developing and Using Models (K-12)
  • Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems. (6-8)
    • Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms. (6-8)
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations (K-12)
  • Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions. (6-8)
    • Conduct an investigation to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that meet the goals of an investigation. (6-8)
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena (2-12)
  • Models, mechanisms, and explanations collectively serve as tools in the development of a scientific theory. (9-12)

This resource is part of a Physics Front Topical Unit.


Topic: Particles and Interactions and the Standard Model
Unit Title: Molecular Structures and Bonding

Covalent bonding occurs when electrons are shared between atoms; ionic bonding occurs when electrons are transferred between atoms. The processes are quite different. This multimedia lesson effectively provides a means for students to visualize the attractions between atoms that result in covalent bonds. Includes simulations and a hands-on lab. It was developed for middle school, but could be well adapted for preparatory chemistry or physics.

Link to Unit:
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Record Link
AIP Format
P. Galvan and J. Kessler, (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2011), WWW Document, (http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson4).
AJP/PRST-PER
P. Galvan and J. Kessler, Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 2011), <http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson4>.
APA Format
Galvan, P., & Kessler, J. (2011, May 17). Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from American Chemical Society: http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson4
Chicago Format
Galvan, Patti, and Jim Kessler. Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, May 17, 2011. http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson4 (accessed 18 April 2014).
MLA Format
Galvan, Patti, and Jim Kessler. Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 2011. 17 May 2011. 18 Apr. 2014 <http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson4>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Patti Galvan and Jim Kessler", Title = {Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding}, Publisher = {American Chemical Society}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {18 April 2014}, Month = {May 17, 2011}, Year = {2011} }
Refer Export Format

%A Patti Galvan
%A Jim Kessler
%T Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding
%D May 17, 2011
%I American Chemical Society
%C Washington DC
%U http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson4
%O text/html

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Galvan, Patti
%A Kessler, Jim
%D May 17, 2011
%T Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding
%I American Chemical Society
%V 2014
%N 18 April 2014
%8 May 17, 2011
%9 text/html
%U http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter4/lesson4


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Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding:

Accompanies Middle School Chemistry: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding

This companion resource by the same authors is a multimedia module on the topic of ionic bonding.

relation by Caroline Hall

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