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written by Mark Bishop
This interactive animation explores models for the structure of water in three states: liquid, solid, and gas. It can be useful within a unit on preparatory chemistry or as a means to help students visualize what happens at the molecular level when matter changes state. The animations are designed to help students understand how temperature and the mutual attraction between molecules combined to determine the state.  

Editor's Note: Be sure not to miss the additional materials in this large collection. Author Mark Bishop also created two textbooks in introductory chemistry (available in free digital format), PowerPoint presentations for teachers, tutorials, student guides, and more.

Please note that this resource requires Flash.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
General Physics
- Properties of Matter
Modern Physics
- Atomic Physics
= Atomic Models
Other Sciences
- Chemistry
Thermo & Stat Mech
- Thermal Properties of Matter
= Density
= Temperature
- High School
- Middle School
- Informal Education
- Instructional Material
= Activity
= Interactive Simulation
= Model
- Audio/Visual
= Illustration
= Movie/Animation
Appropriate Courses Categories Ratings
- Physical Science
- Physics First
- Conceptual Physics
- Algebra-based Physics
- Activity
- New teachers
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Intended Users:
Educator
Learner
Formats:
application/flash
text/html
Access Rights:
Free access and
Available for purchase
Digital versions of textbook are freely viewable; CD and hard-copy versions are available at a cost.
Restriction:
© 2009 Mark Bishop
Keywords:
gases, liquids, molecular motion, molecular structure, solids, states of matter, structure of elements
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created May 2, 2011 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
June 24, 2011 by Bruce Mason
Other Collections:

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

4. The Physical Setting

4D. The Structure of Matter
  • 6-8: 4D/M1a. All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope.
  • 6-8: 4D/M1b. The atoms of any element are like other atoms of the same element, but are different from the atoms of other elements.
  • 6-8: 4D/M1cd. Atoms may link together in well-defined molecules, or may be packed together in crystal patterns. Different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances and determine the characteristic properties of substances.
  • 6-8: 4D/M3cd. In solids, the atoms or molecules are closely locked in position and can only vibrate. In liquids, they have higher energy, are more loosely connected, and can slide past one another; some molecules may get enough energy to escape into a gas. In gases, the atoms or molecules have still more energy and are free of one another except during occasional collisions.
  • 6-8: 4D/M6a. There are groups of elements that have similar properties, including highly reactive metals, less-reactive metals, highly reactive nonmetals (such as chlorine, fluorine, and oxygen), and some almost completely nonreactive gases (such as helium and neon).
  • 6-8: 4D/M8. Most substances can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas depending on temperature.
  • 6-8: 4D/M13. The idea of atoms explains chemical reactions: When substances interact to form new substances, the atoms that make up the molecules of the original substances combine in new ways.

11. Common Themes

11B. Models
  • 6-8: 11B/M1. Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly. They are also used for processes that are too vast, too complex, or too dangerous to study.
11D. Scale
  • 6-8: 11D/M3. Natural phenomena often involve sizes, durations, and speeds that are extremely small or extremely large. These phenomena may be difficult to appreciate because they involve magnitudes far outside human experience.

12. Habits of Mind

12C. Manipulation and Observation
  • 6-8: 12C/M3. Make accurate measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, and temperature by using appropriate devices.

This resource is part of a Physics Front Topical Unit.


Topic: Particles and Interactions and the Standard Model
Unit Title: Properties of Matter

This interactive animation explores models for the structure of water in three states: liquid, solid, and gas. It can be useful within a unit on preparatory chemistry or as a means to help students visualize what happens at the molecular level when matter changes state. The animations are designed to help students understand how temperature and the mutual attraction between molecules combined to determine the state.

Link to Unit:
ComPADRE is beta testing Citation Styles!

Record Link
AIP Format
M. Bishop, (2009), WWW Document, (http://preparatorychemistry.com/water_flash.htm).
AJP/PRST-PER
M. Bishop, An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Water (2009), <http://preparatorychemistry.com/water_flash.htm>.
APA Format
Bishop, M. (2009). An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Water. Retrieved August 28, 2014, from http://preparatorychemistry.com/water_flash.htm
Chicago Format
Bishop, Mark. An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Water. 2009. http://preparatorychemistry.com/water_flash.htm (accessed 28 August 2014).
MLA Format
Bishop, Mark. An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Water. 2009. 28 Aug. 2014 <http://preparatorychemistry.com/water_flash.htm>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Mark Bishop", Title = {An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Water}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {28 August 2014}, Year = {2009} }
Refer Export Format

%A Mark Bishop
%T An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Water
%D 2009
%U http://preparatorychemistry.com/water_flash.htm
%O application/flash

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Bishop, Mark
%D 2009
%T An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Water
%V 2014
%N 28 August 2014
%9 application/flash
%U http://preparatorychemistry.com/water_flash.htm


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Citation Source Information

The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

The APA Style presented is based on information from APA Style.org: Electronic References.

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