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written by Mark Bishop
This resource is a 45-page PowerPoint presentation on the structure of matter, developed for introductory chemistry teachers and learners. It uses atomic models to help novice learners visualize the structure of solids, liquids, and gases as matter composed of tiny particles in constant motion. Initially, the resource explores atoms in stable states (equal numbers of protons and electrons). As the lesson progresses, the author uses high-quality drawings and diagrams of subatomic particles to explain how ions and isotopes are formed.

Editor's Note: This presentation could be adapted for middle school, high school, and college preparatory courses. See Related Items for a link to see an animation developed to accompany this presentation.
Editor's Note: This presentation is flexible enough to be adapted for middle school, high school, and college preparatory courses. For Grades 8-9 physical science courses, teachers may wish to stop at Page 35. See Related Items for a link to see an animation developed to accompany this presentation.
Subjects Levels Resource Types
General Physics
- Properties of Matter
Modern Physics
- Atomic Physics
= Atomic Models
Other Sciences
- Chemistry
Thermo & Stat Mech
- Thermal Properties of Matter
- Middle School
- High School
- Informal Education
- Instructional Material
= Curriculum support
= Lecture/Presentation
Appropriate Courses Categories Ratings
- Physical Science
- Physics First
- Conceptual Physics
- Algebra-based Physics
- Activity
- New teachers
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Intended Users:
Educator
Learner
General Public
Format:
application/pdf
Access Rights:
Free access
Digital versions of textbook are freely viewable; CD and hard-copy versions are available at a cost.
Restriction:
© 2009 Mark Bishop
Keywords:
gas particles, gases, liquids, matter, solids, states of matter
Record Cloner:
Metadata instance created April 7, 2011 by Caroline Hall
Record Updated:
October 3, 2013 by Caroline Hall

AAAS Benchmark Alignments (2008 Version)

4. The Physical Setting

4D. The Structure of Matter
  • 6-8: 4D/M1a. All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope.
  • 6-8: 4D/M3ab. Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. Increased temperature means greater average energy of motion, so most substances expand when heated.
  • 6-8: 4D/M3cd. In solids, the atoms or molecules are closely locked in position and can only vibrate. In liquids, they have higher energy, are more loosely connected, and can slide past one another; some molecules may get enough energy to escape into a gas. In gases, the atoms or molecules have still more energy and are free of one another except during occasional collisions.
  • 6-8: 4D/M7a. No matter how substances within a closed system interact with one another, or how they combine or break apart, the total mass of the system remains the same.
  • 6-8: 4D/M7b. The idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter: If the number of atoms stays the same no matter how the same atoms are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same.
  • 6-8: 4D/M8. Most substances can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas depending on temperature.

11. Common Themes

11B. Models
  • 6-8: 11B/M1. Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly. They are also used for processes that are too vast, too complex, or too dangerous to study.
  • 6-8: 11B/M5. The usefulness of a model depends on how closely its behavior matches key aspects of what is being modeled. The only way to determine the usefulness of a model is to compare its behavior to the behavior of the real-world object, event, or process being modeled.

Next Generation Science Standards

Matter and Its Interactions (MS-PS1)

Students who demonstrate understanding can: (6-8)
  • Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures. (MS-PS1-1)

Matter and Its Interactions (HS-PS1)

Students who demonstrate understanding can: (9-12)
  • Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. (HS-PS1-1)

Disciplinary Core Ideas (K-12)

Structure and Properties of Matter (PS1.A)
  • Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms. (6-8)
  • Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other. (6-8)
  • In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations. (6-8)
  • Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (6-8)
  • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. (9-12)
  • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states. (9-12)

Crosscutting Concepts (K-12)

Patterns (K-12)
  • Similarities and differences in patterns can be used to sort, classify, communicate and analyze simple rates of change for natural phenomena. (5)
  • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of microscopic and atomic-level structure. (6-8)
  • Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena. (9-12)
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity (3-12)
  • Time, space, and energy phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small. (6-8)

NGSS Science and Engineering Practices (K-12)

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions (K-12)
  • Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. (6-8)
    • Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for real-world phenomena, examples, or events. (6-8)
Developing and Using Models (K-12)
  • Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds. (9-12)
    • Use a model to provide mechanistic accounts of phenomena. (9-12)

NGSS Nature of Science Standards (K-12)

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions (K-12)
  • Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. (6-8)
Developing and Using Models (K-12)
  • Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds. (9-12)

This resource is part of 2 Physics Front Topical Units.


Topic: Particles and Interactions and the Standard Model
Unit Title: Matter and Interactions

This attractive 45-page Power Point presentation uses atomic models to help students visualize that matter is composed of tiny particles in constant motion. It explores subatomic particles, explains how the periodic table is organized, and concludes with a brief presentation on ions and isotopes. Can be embedded into your own classroom lectures/presentations, and is easily adaptable for middle or high school.

Link to Unit:

Topic: Particles and Interactions and the Standard Model
Unit Title: Properties of Matter

This attractive 45-page Power Point presentation uses atomic models to help students visualize that matter is composed of tiny particles in constant motion. It explores subatomic particles, explains how the periodic table is organized, and concludes with a brief presentation on ions and isotopes. Can be embedded into your own classroom lectures/presentations, and is easily adaptable for middle or high school.

Link to Unit:
ComPADRE is beta testing Citation Styles!

Record Link
AIP Format
M. Bishop, (2009), WWW Document, (http://preparatorychemistry.com/2Bishop.pdf).
AJP/PRST-PER
M. Bishop, An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements (2009), <http://preparatorychemistry.com/2Bishop.pdf>.
APA Format
Bishop, M. (2009). An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from http://preparatorychemistry.com/2Bishop.pdf
Chicago Format
Bishop, Mark. An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements. 2009. http://preparatorychemistry.com/2Bishop.pdf (accessed 30 July 2014).
MLA Format
Bishop, Mark. An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements. 2009. 30 July 2014 <http://preparatorychemistry.com/2Bishop.pdf>.
BibTeX Export Format
@misc{ Author = "Mark Bishop", Title = {An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements}, Volume = {2014}, Number = {30 July 2014}, Year = {2009} }
Refer Export Format

%A Mark Bishop
%T An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements
%D 2009
%U http://preparatorychemistry.com/2Bishop.pdf
%O application/pdf

EndNote Export Format

%0 Electronic Source
%A Bishop, Mark
%D 2009
%T An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements
%V 2014
%N 30 July 2014
%9 application/pdf
%U http://preparatorychemistry.com/2Bishop.pdf


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Citation Source Information

The AIP Style presented is based on information from the AIP Style Manual.

The APA Style presented is based on information from APA Style.org: Electronic References.

The Chicago Style presented is based on information from Examples of Chicago-Style Documentation.

The MLA Style presented is based on information from the MLA FAQ.

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An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements:

Accompanies An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of Matter

A Shockwave animation developed by the same author to accompany this classroom presentation on The Structure of Matter.

relation by Caroline Hall
Accompanies An Introduction to Chemistry: The Structure of the Elements

This interactive tutorial by the same author gives beginning students a "taste" of atomic/molecular structure by exploring four elements: oxygen, neon, bromine, and iodine.

relation by Caroline Hall

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